causes of infant mortality in developing countries

Vaccinations, adequate nutrition and increasing education will all help to decrease the levels of child mortality. The top three causes of child mortality are: 1. Chlorhexidine gel can help prevent umbilical cord infections, a leading cause of newborn deaths. The U.N. has adopted as a prime objective the approximate halving of the global level of infant mortality before the year 2000 (U.N., 1981). Child mortality is also high in countries that have a high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). On the other end of the spectrum … More research is needed in this very important policy area. In developing countries, stillbirths occur at a rate of about 13 per 1,000 births and early infant deaths at a rate of nine per 1,000 live births—even when women receive antenatal care and deliver in hospitals prepared to handle obstetrical and newborn complications. It can be treated with rehydration zinc supplements. The below strategies should follow to reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) in the developing countries like Bangladesh: A. However, although death registration is virtually complete in these countries, reporting of cause of death is not uniform either among or within European countries or the United States (5,6). High maternal mortality wa… 20–38% of deaths in the first 48 hours of life are attributed to … By Carol Pearson. 3. Infant Accidents. Unlike in underdeveloped countries, lack of education and poverty is not as much of a prevalent cause for the death of infants, developed countries also have less exposure to diseases, especially ones. In absolute terms, this means a reduction from 12 to 6.9 million in the number of children dying every year (Unicef 2012). It is caused by unclean drinking water, contaminated food or person-to-person contact and poor hygiene. Acute respiratory infections, notably pneumonia, and diarrhoeal diseases are the first and second leading causes of death among young children… 2. In 2013, pneumonia killed an estimated... 2. This seems to reflect the fact that the bulk of studies on respiratory infections are focused on clinical interventions such as vaccines and antibiotics. These parasites are transmitted to people from mosquito bites. For infants born weighing 2,500 g (5.5 lb) or less, the mortality rate rapidly increases with decreasing weight, and most of the infants weighing 1,000 … More than a third of child mortality deaths occur in the first month of life and are related to pre-term birth, birth asphyxia (suffocation), and infections. Pneumonia is also more likely to affect those who have pre-existing illnesses such as HIV, who live in an area where levels of indoor air pollution are high because of cooking with biomass fuels like wood or dung, who live in crowded homes, or those who have parents who smoke. A large number of interventions involve sanitation enhancements combined with hygiene education or promotion aspects; for instance, policies that combined handwashing, hygiene education, and soap provision. In many (2008), 'Effect of a nutrition intervention during early childhood on economic productivity in Clientelism – another reason to worry about US democracy by Rachel Gisselquist, The Loop January 19, 2021 The last several months have given us many reasons to worry about US democracy – not least the riot at the US Capitol and the presid... systematic review on non-clinical non-clinical interventions for preventable and treatable childhood diseases in developing countries, Inequality: Driving forces and policy solutions, Three types of interventions that can improve the quality of education in developing countries. Children have been at the centre of recent global efforts to improve well-being conditions in developing countries. The leading causes of infant deaths vary from developed to developing countries. This mortality-reducing effect is most pronounced in the poorest countries, where infant mortality is very high. (2010), 'Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis ', What Can Experiments Tell Us About How to Improve Governance? The six most preventable causes of death for children younger than 5 are: Newborn infections, malaria, sepsis, measles (13% of deaths) Childhood malnutrition is an underlying cause of 45% of all deaths among children younger than 5, … 1. And the United States Foreign Assistance Act stipulates the reduction of infant mortality as a key criterion by which to assess a country’s commitment to the development process. There are significant racial disparities in infant mortality rates in the United States. Recent estimates suggest that nearly 80 per cent of under-five deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and about half of the deaths, in one of five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, and China (Black et al. The results of our study show a relative dearth of research on respiratory infections, compared to those on diarrhoeal diseases: while over 30 studies were conducted on diarrhoea diseases, only seven were carried out for respiratory infections. – The Huffington Post, https://borgenproject.org/wp-content/uploads/The_Borgen_Project_Logo_small.jpg, Causes of Child Mortality in Developing Countries, Education and Poverty: Critical Connections, Effect of Expulsion Plans on Hispaniola’s Poorest Citizens. Infant mortality is an indicator of how developed a … In developed countries until the mid-1930s, maternal mortality rates were high. Malaria related mortality cases in Africa have fallen 54 percent since 2000. Pneumonia The reduction in the excess mortality of the poorer classes from other causes (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) These include include sanitation and hospital upgrades, and improving water supply, its distribution, and/or quality. The good news is that there is evidence of a decline in incidence and mortality rates—due to diarrhoea and pneumonia—among young children in developing countries. Black, Robert E., et al. Overall, we have identified two general policy strategies with regard to non-clinical interventions against diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases: first, policies that aim at enhancing supply-side capabilities in the area of material resources and/or infrastructure. While pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, only one third of the children infected with pneumonia get the antibiotics necessary to cure them. Malaria Malaria is preventable through the use of mosquito nets and levels of deaths caused by malaria are decreasing. India and Nigeria alone account for more than one-third of  child deaths worldwide. Water quality interventions to remove microbial contaminants—either at source or in the household—are frequently paired with the provision of improved water storage vessels. The New England Journal of Medicine stated that "The lowest mortality rates occur among infants weighing 3,000 to 3,500 g (6.6 to 7.7 lb). Assessing ‘what works’ in tackling the main cause of child morbidity and mortality is thus fundamental for effective policy actions. a sanitation policy coupled with water quality improvements) were not necessarily more effective than interventions with a single focus. Those who are malnourished have weaker immune systems and are therefore at a higher risk of dying from pneumonia. The top three causes of child mortality are: 1. This can happen with increased access to healthcare facilities and increased prenatal visits.            365-66. The maternal mortality ratio in developing countries in 2015 is 239 per 10… As discussed below, most such deaths are preventable with low-cost measures. Things like poverty, a lack of access to quality healthcare, and cultural practices are causing maternal mortality rates in developing countries to be unnecessarily high (“Leading and underlying causes of maternal mortality” 1). Early malnutrition is also linked to poor cognitive functioning and learning capacity, which in the longer term leads to lower labour productivity, and poverty (Grosse and Roy 2008; Hoddinott et al. Figure 3: Clinical and non-clinical interventions against childhood diseases in developing countries. ReCom - research and communication on foreign aid, Clientelism – another reason to worry about US democracy. So, what works against preventable and treatable childhood diseases? 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